This instruction exists in this form on all 386-class processors.
An undocumented op code that will make debugging run-time code on an ICE easier. Normally, to set an arbitrary breakpoint in a program which was loaded by an operating system, you must perform a laborious task of figuring out where your program was loaded in memory. Follow that process with an equally laborious task of calculating the offset in memory which corresponds to the desired breakpoint. This process is exacerbated by programs which use many segments, especially many code segments. Now for one final complication, consider that your program switches from real mode, to protected mode, with paging enabled, and you are not using a 1-to-1 mapping of physical to virtual memory. You want to talk about a nightmare just to figure out where to set a breakpoint?
All of these problems are eliminated, simply by using this instruction -- provided you know its caveats.
Undocumented: Available to all 80386-class (and above) processors as described herein. May be available to 80286 processors, but implemented in a different manner. Useful to BONDOUT (ICE) processors. Especially useful during ICE debugging. Useful in production source code. ICEBP Flags: ICE Break Point +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +----------+ |O|D|I|T|S|Z|A|P|C| | 11110001 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +----------+ | | | | | | | | | | | F1 | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +----------+
The name ICEBP was given by a pre-production Intel ICE that had the ability to disassemble undocumented op codes. The name ICEBP is a misnomer because the instruction is actually a single byte single-step exception (INT-01).
How you use ICEBP depends upon whether or not you are using an 80386 ICE, Intel486 ICE, or Pentium ICE. For the purposes of this article, usage of ICEBP on 80386 and Intel486 are identical. Pentium enables ICEBP a little differently than its predecessors.
]ICEBP has two operational effects: When Interrupt Redirection (IR) is disabled, ICEBP acts as a single byte INT 01. When this instruction occurs, it invokes the standard INT 01 handler. Unlike the single step exception (Trap Flag=1), this instruction does not set the trap flag on the stack image, nor modifies the trap flag on the stack image. Therefore, upon termination of the INT 01 handler, execution continues without further occurrences of the single step breakpoints.
When Interrupt Redirection is enabled, ICEBP will attempt to invoke the hardware breakpoint handler associated with an In Circuit Emulator (ICE). If the processor is a production CPU, the processor will hang. If the processor is a BONDOUT CPU attached to an ICE, ICEBP will cause the ICE to break from emulation. On an Intel ICE, the message "Unknown Breakpoint at address xxxx:xxxx:xxxxxxxx" appears on the screen.
There are two ways to enable Interrupt Redirection. It can be done by directly programming DR7 (see "Undocumented Bits in DR7"), or this bit can be set (indirectly) using an ICE. To set this bit using an ICE, you must first be in HALT mode. Any "go til" command that uses the debug registers will enable Interrupt Redirection. For example, "go til 1234:5678 execute," "go til 1025:3245 write," or simply "go til 0 p" will enable Interrupt Redirection. This work because the ICE actually uses the debug registers to trap debug exceptions. Of course, this directly implies that any time the ICE uses the debug registers to signify break points, and emulation halts, it does so following an INT 01 to the ICE break point handler (since interrupt redirection is enabled).
The usage of ICEBP is identical on 80386 and Intel486 processors, as it is on Pentium. The only difference, is how Interrupt Redirection is enabled. On Pentium, Interrupt Redirection is enabled and disabled in the Probe Mode Control Register (PMCR). The PMCR is only accessible via the Pentium debug port. The PMCR exists inside the Pentium, but is not software-accessible by any means. You must have an ICE connected to the debug port to modify bits in the PMCR. This feature protects software against programmers intent on finding undocumented bits in the processor. The benefit of this design, is that the Interrupt Redirection bit may be enabled and disabled while the processor is running. You don't have to wait until a halt, or halt the ICE to enable and disable Interrupt Redirection. And like its predecessors, the Pentium ICE will enable and disable Interrupt Redirection by setting a breakpoint which uses the debug registers. On the Microtek Pentium ICE, any breakpoint called a hardware breakpoint, uses the debug registers. Therefore, setting any of these breakpoints, will enable Interrupt Redirection.
I expect that ICEBP will work identically on the P6 as it does on a Pentium. Like the undocumented instruction SALC, ICEBP may be documented beginning with the P6. I found ICEBP in the P6 opcode map. However, the instruction is no longer called ICEBP on the P6. It is officially named INT01. This is in contrast to the preproduction 80386 ICE which disassembled this instruction as ICEBP. Regardless of the name change, the operational effects will be identical.
Here are all of the ways to crash the production CPU when Interrupt Redirection is enabled, but an ICE is not connected:
ICEBP is most useful for debugging purposes using an ICE. I use it in code where I need the ICE to break from emulation, but I don't know where the program is loaded in physical memory. At the beginning of a subroutine where I want a breakpoint to occur, I insert an ICEBP instruction. Before I invoke my software, I halt the ICE, and simply say "go til 0 p." On the Pentium, this is even easier. On the Pentium, from the command window of the ICE, I type "pmcr=1." This will cause the ICE to enable Interrupt Redirection. Once my program begins to execute the desired subroutine, the ICE automatically breaks from emulation. This instruction can be used in a similar manner to debug a UNIX kernel, and any application that switches to page mode (CR0[b31]=1). Insert an ICEBP instruction at the beginning of a subroutine, issue the appropriate ICE command, and emulation will HALT at the desired location. When used in this manner, this instruction saves considerable amounts of time. The engineer doesn't need to manually convert page directories, and page table entries to physical addresses in an attempt to determine where the subroutine is in memory. The engineer also doesn't need to worry that the debug registers used by the ICE, break on linear addresses, not physical addresses. The engineer doesn't need to look at an assembly map file to find the (relative) address of a subroutine, then try and figure out where the operating system loaded the program. The use of this instructions makes all of these, and many more debugging techniques obsolete.
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